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"If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me." (Luke 9:23)

Chapter 1 of Biblical Theology - New Testament by C. K. Lehman. See copyright information at end.



by C. K. Lehman

1. Introduction

A theology of the New Testament encounters first of all a problem of structure. Some elements of this problem appear (1) in the character of this body of writings as composed of records of the life and teachings of Christ, the record of apostolic history, the letters of the apostles and others, and the apocalypse of john (2) in the time element of the appearance of these books, arising chiefly during the two decades from about AD 50 to AD 68, together with the Johannine books from the tenth decade; and (3) in the source of these writings, the living church.

All these factors need to be recognized if a structure is to arise from an inductive approach to this literature. Already in the Old Testament we receive intimations or basic ideas relating to the structure of the revelation in the age to come, that of the New Testament. Let us examine briefly what may be gained already from the Old Testament as to the structure of the new body of revelation.

2. The Structure of New Testament Revelation as Forecast in the Old Testament

One of the leading characteristics of the Old Testament is its eschatological outlook. As early as in the account of Creation, writers pointed to something better to take place in the future. Implicit in the absence of a statement such as, "And there was evening and there was morning, a seventh day," which would be expected after Genesis 2:3, is the idea that God's work of creation had not ceased. In the future He would again create. This took form in the definite prediction, "Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former things shall not be remembered" (Is. 65:17).

Another sample of this forward look in the Old Testament is found in Genesis 3:15, when God said, "1 will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel." He would have Eve look forward to some future time when this would be accomplished. In a very real way the entire Old Testament is a revelation dealing with this forward look expressed in the promise to Eve.

The eschatological aspect of God's promises to Abraham was plainly evident (Gen. 12:1-3; 15:5; 17:6-8). These promises led Abraham and his descendants to look forward to the time when his people would become a great nation, and when all families of the earth would be blessed. They became a determining factor throughout Israel's history and gave the pattern for the structure of New Testament revelation.

This forward look was unfolded further in God's covenant with Israel at Mt. Sinai (Ex. 19:4-6; 24:3-11). In this God revealed Himself as the covenant-making God. He was carrying forward the covenant made with Abraham by way of a new covenant to be made with the people of Israel. It is quite certain that God's chosen people did not see the limitations in their covenant relationship with God. It would seem that the devout Israelites would naturally long for a covenant relationship with God that would do away with repeated bloody sacrifices. It is not surprising, then, that the prophet Jeremiah near the close of Old Testament history looked forward to a new era. He was privileged to quote God as saying: "I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house Judah," (Jer. 31:31). Elements of the superiority of this new covenant are found in the spiritual character of its laws being written upon the hearts of the people rather than on tables of stone and that God would forgive their iniquity and no more remember their sins. Other prophets declared that this new covenant would be an everlasting covenant and also a covenant of peace (Is. 55:3; 61:8; Ezek. 16:60; 34:25).

The most remarkable characteristic of the coming new era centered in a person. One strand of predictions concerning this Person portrayed His kingly work, the earliest traces of which are found in Jacob's promise to Judah concerning a Descendant who would wield a scepter and of Balaam's predictions of a kingly Descendant in Israel, advancing to an anointed One of the Lord (Ps. 2), who would reign forever (Gen. 49:10; Num. 23:21; 24:7, 17:2; 2 Sam. 7:13). Undoubtedly the author of Psalm 2 picked up these isolated strands of a kingly One to come and spoke of Him as the anointed of the Lord, the Messiah. Later prophets laid hold of this prophecy and centered in Him all the predictions of the future age. Another strand of this forward look centered in the Prophet whom God would raise up like unto Moses (Deut. 18:15, 18). The preeminence of this coming Prophet lay in the fact that He would be like Moses, whom the Lord knew face-to-face.

A third prophetic strand concerning the One to come centered in the Servant of the Lord (Is. 403/4 66). This most extraordinary Person, spoken of in Isaiah 403/4 66 bore the characteristics of a priest, in fact, more than a priest. The sublime language of Isaiah 52:133/4 53:12 featured Him as the suffering Servant, the sacrifice provided by God for man's sin. In a very special way, the Spirit of the Lord God would rest upon Him. He would have the special task of bringing good tidings to mankind and of proclaiming the year of the Lord's favor (Is. 61:1-3). The Old Testament did not identify this Servant of the Lord with the King and Prophet whom God would raise up. Nevertheless, the prediction is clear that in the coming era this Servant of the Lord would appear; the Spirit of the Lord God would be upon Him; He would proclaim the gospel; and He would announce the acceptable year of the Lord. Above all, He would make Himself an offering for sin.

Another great theme centering in Old Testament predictions of the coming era related to the outpouring of God's Spirit upon all flesh. It is significant that the prophet Joel located this act of God in an era following the day of the Lord. Peter spoke of this time as the last days. Thus the prophets clearly marked off a coming age having its beginning after the imminent day of the Lord, in which God would overthrow Jerusalem extending to a future age which came to be known as the days of the Messiah. Peter's expression the last days suggested that this is the culminating age of the world (2 Pet. 3:3). All previous history looks forward to this era. According to Joel, the pouring out of God's Spirit upon all flesh earmarks the age. Isaiah identified the time when the Spirit is poured upon his people as that in which a King will reign in righteousness (Is. 32:1, 15; cf. 59:20, 21). In similar contexts the prophet Ezekiel quoted God as saying, "I will put my Spirit within you" (Ezek. 36:25-27; 37:11-14; 39:29). Note how he pointed up the inner spiritual change which will take place in those in whom God puts His Spirit.

The significant use of the word new in these Scriptures can hardly escape our attention. In the language of Vos, "The term new emerges in a semiconscious manner, as it were, to give expression to the contrast to what is and what shall be" [1].

With these forward-looking Scriptures in view, the Old Testament predictions of the coming age become quite clear and distinct. The finality and organic unity of this impending era of revelation are evident. It is a period of time which lies beyond the imminent day of the Lord. It is defined as the last days, or the latter days, and will be the culminating age of the world. Structurally, this coming age is monolithic. Its unifying factor is the coming anointed One, who is at once Prophet, Priest, and King, the incomparable Son of God. Since God knows Him face-to-face, He will speak the words of God. He will institute a new covenant in His own blood. He will take His seat on the restored throne of David, even at the right hand of God.

3. The New Testament Structural Pattern Revealed by Jesus

According to the Gospel of Mark, Jesus opened His ministry with the words, "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel" (Mk. 1:15). This expression, "the time is fulfilled," referred to the period between the predicted judgment of the day of the Lord and the beginning of the last days. The kingdom of God being at hand marked the beginning of the new era, and the preaching of the gospel was witness to this fact. In another context (Mt. 11:12-14; Lk. 7:28, 29) Jesus made a very significant distinction between the Old and the New by saying, "The law and the prophets were until John; since then the good news of the kingdom of God is preached" (Lk. 16:16). He identified this new era by declaring that John is the messenger preceding the Lord, and also the Elijah who was to come (Mal. 3:1; 4:5).

Another structural pattern revealed by Jesus is found in His bisection of the ages of the world. He spoke of this age and of the age to come (Mt. 12:32; 13:37-43, 49, 59; 19:28, 29; Mk. 10:30; Lk. 18:29, 30).

From these Scriptures we learn that the present age is temporal and the age to come is eternal. The present age is the time of Christ's kingdom, and the age to come, that of the Father. The dividing line between the two is the time when "The Son of man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all evildoers" (Mt. 13:41). This will be the judgment which will take place at Christ's return, when He will sit on His glorious throne to judge all mankind (Mt. 16:28; 25:31-46).

Jesus made another significant statement when He said, "In the new world, when the Son of man shall sit on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel" (Mt. 19:28). The Greek work palingenesia, translated new age, carries the meanings renewal, restoration, and regeneration. According to Cremer, [1] "The word may also be taken in a still deeper, more comprehensive sense, noting the restoration of all things to their former state. Cremer holds that this word is equivalent to apokatastasis (restoration), the verb form of which was used by the disciples in their question, "Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?" (Acts 1:6). Speaking about Jesus, Peter said, "Whom heaven must receive until the time for establishing [apokatastasis] all that God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old" (Acts 3:21). If Cremer is correct in identifying palingenesia with apokatastasis, then Christ and Peter were speaking of the same era of time, which in Peter's message refers to the times of refreshing which come from the presence of the Lord. This is a clear reference to Christ's return, showing how Christ made a distinction between the present age and the age to come.

The last incident in which Jesus gave a structural pattern of New Testament revelation centered in the institution of the Lord's Supper. "This cup," Jesus said, "is the new covenant in my blood" (Lk. 22:20). This statement, seen in the light of Jeremiah's prediction, marks the beginning of the new age, that of the Messiah. As the old covenant instituted the theocracy, the rule of God, so the new covenant instituted the Christocracy, the rule of Christ. Christ then declared, "I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom" (Mt. 26:29, KJV). With these words Jesus was spanning the time from the institution of the new covenant, which marked the beginning of His reign, on to the time of His Father's kingdom, which, according to Jesus' interpretation of the parable of the wheat and the tares, would begin at the end of this age.

The structural pattern of New Testament revelation as given by Jesus should now be clear. The Old Testament order of things as found in the law and the prophets terminated with John the Baptist. Since then the good news of the kingdom of God is preached. Jesus mapped out the future in two ages: the present age, temporal in character, and the age to come, which is eternal. The making of the new covenant inaugurated the present age. It marked the beginning of His messianic reign, which will continue until the end of this age, when He shall return to consummate His kingdom in the judgment and to hand all things over to the Father.

4. The Structural Pattern of New Testament Revelation as Found in Christ's Exaltation to Messianic Kingship

Jesus' last words spoken to the disciples before His ascension were significant in preparing them for the meaning of the Pentecost experience. He spoke to them concerning the kingdom of God; and in connection with this, He said that they were soon to be baptized with the Holy Spirit. But the disciples were still looking for a literal restoration of the kingdom to Israel. In response to their question on this matter Jesus said, "It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has fixed by his own authority. But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria and to the end of the earth" (Acts 1:7, 8). This conversation was very significant for our purpose. While we do not know specifically the content of Jesus' words concerning the kingdom of God, undoubtedly it was climactic in leading the disciples to see the meaning of the kingdom of God in the light of His resurrection and in the coming of the Holy Spirit. Jesus brushed aside the disciples' hope for a literal restoration of Israel's kingdom. Instead, He pointed to the coming of the Holy Spirit and of the disciples' worldwide mission as Christ's witnesses. From the standpoint of the structure of New Testament theology, we are thus prepared to think of the life and teachings of Jesus as a separate division from that which followed His resurrection and ascension. We are led to anticipate an explanation of Christ's work by the apostles in the light of the coming experience of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit.

The spectacular experience of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost required explanation. As might be expected, Peter became the interpreter of this very extraordinary event. He at once identified this experience as the fulfillment of Joel's prediction. Peter declared that they were then in the last days spoken of by Joel, the prophet. He accounted for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit as the work of the risen and glorified Jesus. Exalted at the right hand of God and being given all power and authority, Jesus had begun His mediatorial kingship. His first work as the reigning Messiah was the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon all flesh. By this act all Israel could know that God had made Him both Lord and Christ. This act, then, marked a new era in the work of Christ.

On the occasion of the healing of the lame man (Acts 3), Peter spoke further on the work of Christ: "God glorified his servant Jesus" (v. 13). In this expression Peter identified Jesus with the Servant of the Lord. The new era in the life of the Servant of the Lord was His glorification. By way of explanation, Peter noted that Christ's suffering was foretold by the prophets. He exhorted the Jews to repent so that times of refreshing might come from the presence of the Lord. There is an evident connection between this context and that of Jesus when He spoke of the new world when He would sit on His glorious throne (Mt. 19:28). Peter brought his message to a fitting close by noting that all the prophets had spoken of these days (Acts 3:24). The promise made to Abraham that in his posterity all families of the earth would be blessed had been fulfilled (v. 25).

Peter gave another very significant summary of the work of Christ in his conversation with Cornelius and his companions. In this encounter the structural pattern of New Testament revelation again becomes clear. God had anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power. He went about doing good and healed all that were oppressed of the devil, for God was with Him. The Jews had put Christ to death but God raised Him on the third day and made Him manifest. God ordained this One to be Judge of the living and the dead (Acts 10:38-42). In these words Peter again pointed to the grand bisection between our Lord's earthly ministry and His messianic glory.

5. Paul's Explication of the Structural Pattern of New Testament Revelation

Paul's first reference to a structural pattern of New Testament revelation is found in his sermon at Antioch of Pisidia (Acts 13:23-29). After tracing Israel's history to the time of David, Paul declared that God had brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, as He had promised. He declared further that to them, as sons of Abraham, had been sent the message of this salvation. The Jews who lived at the time of Jesus did not recognize Him nor understand the utterances of the prophets which they fulfilled in the condemnation of Jesus. This Jesus whom they crucified God raised from the dead. These events were the foundation for the good news which God had promised to the fathers and had fulfilled in raising Jesus from the dead. Paul clinched his point by quoting from Psalm 2; Isaiah 55:3; and Psalm 16:10. In his defense before Agrippa (Acts 26:16-18, 22, 23), Paul referred to Jesus' words to him at the time of his conversion in which the Lord commissioned him in the language of Isaiah 42:7, 16. Thus in fulfillment of a Servant of the Lord passage Paul was commissioned "to open their eyes, that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God" (Acts 26:18). On this basis Paul was making clear that he was saying nothing but what the prophets and Moses said would come to pass in the death and resurrection of Christ, which laid the foundation for his proclaiming light both to the people and to the Gentiles. In this manner Paul built the time of the preaching of the gospel directly on what had been foretold by Moses and the prophets.

Repeatedly in the Letter to the Romans, Paul structured New Testament revelation as the fulfillment of Old Testament predictions. Thus Paul stated that Hosea had in mind both Jews and Gentiles when he wrote, "Those who were not my people I will call 'my people,' and her who was not beloved I will call 'my beloved' " (Rom. 9:25). See Rom. 9:22-26; Hos. 2:23; 1:10. In this quotation from Hosea it is evident that the prophet was looking forward to a new era, in which apostate Israel would again become God's people and His beloved. Later in the book, Paul indicated that the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah had predicted the extension of salvation to Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 11:20-32; Is. 27:9; 59:20, 21; Jer. 31:33). The Deliverer had come to Zion and was banishing ungodliness from Jacob. The new covenant had been made. Still another chain of Old Testament quotations occurs in Romans 15:7-13 (Ps. 18:49; Deut. 32:43; Ps. 117:1; Is. 11:10), in which predictions were given concerning the offer of salvation to the Gentiles. Most climactic is the statement, "The root of Jesse shall come, he who rises to rule the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles hope" (Rom. 15:12). Thus Paul showed that the era of salvation for the Gentiles would come when "the root of Jesse" would ascend to His throne.

Paul enlarged on the structure of the New Testament revelation when he showed the vast superiority of the new covenant over the old. The new is written in the Spirit. The Spirit gives life, while the old covenant showed splendor symbolized by the brightness of Moses' face. But the dispensation of the Spirit is attended with greater splendor, that of the glory of the Lord (2 Cor. 3:4-18). In a similar way Paul developed the contrast between the law and the prophets. God had promised Abraham that in his offspring all nations of the earth would be blessed. The law coming 430 years afterward did not annul the covenant promise. It merely served as a custodian until the offspring, Christ, should come. In this manner Paul showed that the promise fulfilled in Christ had its origin in God's word to Abraham. Structurally, New Testament revelation had its roots in this promise.

Paul followed Christ in viewing Old Testament revelation as looking forward to, and giving the pattern of, the coming revelation in Christ. He also built his revelational structure on Old Testament revelation and elaborated his views of revelation on the foundation already laid by Christ. Observe Paul's references to the making of the new covenant, to the worldwide mission of the gospel, to the work of the Holy Spirit, to the exaltation of Christ to messianic kingship, to the church as the body of Christ, to the division of the last days into the present age and the age to come, and to the Lord's return to raise the dead and to judge the world.

6. The Structure of Revelation According to Hebrews

The author of Hebrews showed his deep insight into the structural pattern of divine revelation. In the opening verses of his letter he wrote, "In many and various ways God spoke of old to our fathers by the prophets; but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world" (Heb. 1:1, 2). The words, "God spoke," set forth the character of divine revelation. God's revelation has two major divisions: first that which was spoken by God through the prophets; and second, that which was spoken through His Son. These determine the great time eras of human history. The first is marked by the expression, "of old," and the second by the words, "in these last days." By this language the author of Hebrews identified the era of God's speaking in His Son, as initiating the "last days" spoken of by the prophets. He referred also to the appearing of Christ, "at the end [sunteleia] the age" (9:26). All the ages prior to Christ's appearing prepared for and looked forward to this age which marks the consummation of all ages. In the same context the writer declared that Christ "will appear a second time to save those who are eagerly waiting for him" (9:28).

Fundamental to our understanding of the structure of New Testament revelation is the author's presentation of the work of Jesus in terms of the Old Testament revelation. Jesus became a high priest after the order of Melchizedek (6:20). On this account He became "the surety of a better covenant" (7:22). In fulfillment of Psalm 110:1 this Jesus is now seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, a minister in the sanctuary and the true tent which is set up not by man but by the Lord" (8:1, 2). For this reason the tabernacle served as a copy and shadow of the heavenly sanctuary (v. 5). The climax to this subcutural pattern appears in 10:1-18. Having offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, Christ sat down at the right hand of God. The Holy Spirit through the prophet Jeremiah had already borne witness to this finished work of Christ which is evident in God's words, "I will remember their sins and their misdeeds no more" (Heb. 10:17).

In a very appropriate closing exhortation and warning the author of Hebrews looked forward to the ultimate cataclysm foretold by God when He promised, "Yet once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heaven" (12:26). The author exhorted his readers in the words, "Let us be grateful for receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken" (12:28). The author's benediction looks to "the God of peace who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant" (13:20). These words capture the great prophetic truths given by the prophets Isaiah, Zechariah, and Ezekiel, evidence again of the New Testament's fulfillment of Old Testament predictions and of the structure of the new revelation.

7. The Structure of Revelation According to 1 and 2 Peter

Peter also gave witness to the structure of the New Testament revelation. He put his finger on the problem encountered by the prophets concerning the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glory. The prophets seemed to be unable to gain the perspective of the suffering Christ alongside the glorified Christ. With the events of Christ's life culminating in His exaltation, Peter was in position to grasp the true perspective in the light of fulfillment and of later revelation. Peter set forth his understanding of Christ's work by saying," He was destined before the foundation of the world but was made manifest at the end of the for your sake" (1 Pet. 1:20). Here then is a structural pattern of divine revelation which had its beginning before the foundation of the world. The manifestation of Christ took place at the end of the times. By this language Peter gave further attestation to the eschatological aspect of Old Testament revelation. He viewed Christ's manifestation as the climax of divine revelation because there are no times succeeding the end of the times. But Peter did look forward and declared that Christ "is read to judge the living and the dead. . . . The end of all things is at hand" (1 Pet. 4:5, 7). He expanded this idea in his second letter by framing his message under the eschatological thesis, the day of the (2 Pet. 3:8-13).

This prophetic theme had already gained tremendous significance among the Old Testament prophets as they foretold the imminent judgment to be brought upon Israel and Judah. Peter's use of the expression in this setting suggests that this theme was not exhausted in these judgments, but they were the beginning of God's judgments which were deeply eschatological in their character and forecast a culminating aspect of the day of the Lord. The destruction of the present world order in Peter's viewpoint precedes the fulfillment of God's promise to create "new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells" (2 Pet. 3:13). Here again Peter built his eschatology on Old Testament predictions, me on Isaiah 65:17.

8. Summary of New Testament Structural Pattern

The total structural pattern of New Testament revelation should now be apparent. It is exceedingly significant that there is a grand unity among New Testament speakers and writers concerning the structure of this revelation. Needless to say, if such unity did not exist, a systematic treatment of New Testament biblical theology would be impossible.

In the first place we should note that New Testament speakers and writers purposely built their revelation on Old Testament revelation. They structured their messages as the fulfillment of the Old, the culmination of divine revelation. The new revelation confirmed the eschatological outlook of the old. The evidence stands as follows: (1) The latter days have begun. (2) These last days constitute the age of the coming Messiah. The teaching ministry of Christ fulfilled the prophetic work of the coming Messiah. The suffering Servant of the Lord fulfilled the priestly aspect of the coming Messiah's work. Christ's exaltation to the throne of David and His sitting at the right hand of God fulfilled the kingly aspect of the coming Messiah. (3) The making of the new covenant climaxed the covenant structure of Old Testament revelation and became the focal point of New Testament revelation. (4) The outpouring of the Holy Spirit structured as taking place in the latter days came to fulfillment. It marked the first work of the exalted and reigning Messiah. (5) The acceptable time, the day of salvation, had come. This pointed up the universalism of the offer of salvation in the days of the Messiah. (6) The church constitutes the people of the reigning Christ under the new covenant.

In the second place, the new structural pattern centering in the new covenant has emerged. (1) The law and the prophets terminated with John the Baptist and were succeeded by the kingdom of God in which God spoke in His Son. (2) The work of Christ falls into two divisions: first, His earthly ministry centering in His life, teachings, suffering, death, and resurrection; and second, His work as the reigning Messiah beginning with His exaltation to the right hand of God. The line of cleavage between the two was the institution of the new covenant. (3) The latter days fall into two ages: the present age, which will be succeeded by the age to come. The first is temporal in character, and the second is eternal. A catastrophism will mark the close of this age. Christ will return to raise the dead and to judge the world. The closing act of this consummation will be Christ's delivery of His kingdom over to the Father

9. Divisions of New Testament Theology

The structural pattern of New Testament revelation has a very definite bearing on the plan of developing a theology of the New Testament. A definite line of cleavage separates the revelation given directly through Christ during His earthly ministry from that mediated by Christ through the apostles. The former examines the life and teachings of Christ culminating in His death and resurrection, while the latter includes the preaching of the Gospel and the teachings of the apostles and other New Testament writers. The Gospel records furnish the material for the former, and the remainder of the New Testament for the latter.

I accept the Gospels as authentic records of the life and teachings of Christ. While they arose out of the church some thirty years after the ascension of Christ, they purport to be historical in character, and we should accept these Gospels as to what they claim to be. I shall deal with this matter more fully in a later chapter.

We will need to observe also that each Gospel writer prepared his record under different situations in the church, and for this reason each Gospel possesses a distinctive theological viewpoint. This too calls for Some elaboration in a later chapter.

The revelation mediated by Christ through the apostles also divides itself quite naturally into several parts, such as: the early preaching of the apostles found in Acts 1 to 10; the theology of Paul, based on his preaching and letters; the theology of Peter, James, and Jude, based on their letters; the theology of Hebrews; and finally, the theology of John, based on his writings. The author recognizes a fundamental unity in all this literature and the breakdown of treatment of these parts does not nullify this unity. This division of subject matter seeks to capture the revelation of the New Testament in its unfolding process. Even though the New Testament period of revelation is limited to less than a century in time and the writing of the books is limited to a few decades the unfolding process is very instructive.

For Additional Reading and Reference: 

Barr, Old and New in Interpretation, pp. 65-102.

Bernard, The Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament, pp. 1-29.

Bowman, Prophetic Realism and the Gospel, pp. 20-47.

Bruce, F. F., New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes, pp. 11-21.

Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament, Vol. II, pp. 237-251.

Filson, Jesus Christ, the Risen Lord, pp. 9-30.

Hunter, Introducing New Testament Theology (scan entire work).

Van Osterzee, The Theology of the New Testament, pp. 19-24.

Vos, Biblical Theology, p. 321-327.

Weidner, Biblical Theology of the New Testament, Vol. 1, pp. 13-27.

Weiss, Biblical Theology of the New Testament, Vol. 1, pp. 1-42.


 1. Geerbardus Vos. Biblical Theology - Old and New Testaments (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1948). p. 321. See Is. 65:17; 66:22; Jer. 31:31; Ezek. 11:19; 36:26

 2. Biblical Theological Lexicon of New Testament Greek (Edinburg: T. & T. Clark, 1954), p. 151.

About the author: 

Chester K. Lehman

Chester K. Lehman was born near Millersville, Pennsylvania. A graduate of First Pennsylvania State Normal School, he continued his education receiving an AB from Hesston College and Bible School, AM from Franklin and Marshall College, ThB from Princeton Theological Seminary, and ThM, ThD from Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Virginia.

He served as Dean of Eastern Mennonite College from 1924 to 1956, as head of the Bible Department from 1921 to 1965, and has contributed part time service as Professor of Theology in the Seminary. His teaching field included New Testament Greek Exegesis, English Bible, Christian Ethics, and Theology (Biblical and Systematic).

He is the author of The Inadequacy of Evolution as a World View, Bible Survey Course (N. T. Studies), The Fulfillment of Prophecy, and The Holy Spirit and the Holy Life. Unpublished theses include: The Conception of Personality and Its Theological Application, Prolegomena to Christian Theology, and The Teaching of the Bible on the Last Things.

He shared in the writing of The Revised Standard Version, An Examination and Evaluation; Mennonite Confession of Faith (1963); and in compiling The Mennonite Hymnal.

He is an ordained minister and has held several pastorates in his local area. He has served in Bible conferences throughout the Mennonite Church.

Chapter 1 of Biblical Theology - New Testament by C. K. Lehman. See copyright information at end. © by Herald Press, Scottdale, Penna. 1974, © now owned by Leland M. Haines, Northville, Mich.


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